Data   Pictures   Labels
1876 - 1973
v/ H.E. Gosch og O.P. Davidsen

The story of H. E. Gosch & Co. is very long, if you have to tell the full story. Instead, we have chosen in this section of telling a very sporadic summary and then selected in the next long time to tell a number of stories about the various situations that occurred in HE Gosch & Co.. These you can read at this link: H.E. Gosch & Co, stories to be told.

Heinrich Eduard Gosch had been a traveling salesman for Ludvig Hintzes match stick factory in Schleswig and Flensburg, and when the latter factory moved to Copenhagen and shortly after was sold to Anders Sørensen, he employed HE Gosch as salesman and bookkeeper.

After Anders Sørensen in 1875 unsuccessfully had sought to transform his company to Frederiksberg Tændstikfabrik limited  Gosch found himself free to start his own business and in Sundbyøster on Amager he found a suitable site in Jacobsgade , where he could build a factory.

Already at the end of 1875  factory stood finished and the 11th of January 1876 he could for the first time announce about the brands from his new factory " Phoenix " .

During the summer  Oscar Davidsen contacted Gosch to establish cooperation as his partner in the firm Pallesen & Co. was dead. Gosch and Davidsen quickly found together and the 8th of January 1877 they changed the company into a partnership with the name HE Gosch & Co , Amager .

That autumn they knowledged that Anders Sørensen was going to sell his factory in Frederiksberg and the 30th of  December they signed the agreement with Sørensen . The company name was H. E. Gosch & Co , Copenhagen, where Phoenix brand was manufactured in Amager and Tordenskjold in Frederiksberg.

The following year, they steady rebuilt and extended the factory and in April 1882 they transformed the company into the limited company HE Gosch & Co. Tændstikfabrikker, Copenhagen, where the grocers, Jacob Emil Michaelsen, Harry Levin and Anders Sørensen was going to sit in the board . Davidsen and Gosch were presidents. The share capital was at 210,000 kroner.

To avoid a grueling competition Gosch and Davidson gathered in 1883 with Ole Christian Green from Godthaab and Ernst Carl Hoff from Randers Tændstikfabrik and agreed on uniform prices . And the development continued for all three companies and on the Great Northern industrial exhibition in Copenhagen in 1888 all had spectacular stands with their products.

At the end of 1888  Gosch began to mechanize their production including a box glue machine and when this was commissioned , they could dismiss the 160 families who had hitherto made boxes at home.

In May 1896  Gosch came out for one of the few fires, they were exposed to as it caught fire in a waste at the plant in Frederiksberg , which ignited a part of the production building and the machines that were in this . As luck no one was injured in the fire and only 2 ½ months later , production was restarted.

As Gosch became ill in 1898 , he had agreed with his son-in-law, Folmer Preisler that this would resign his position at LF Mørck & Co. and go into the match stick business , initially as a traveler in order to learn the business from the inside . Gosch died the 16th of March 1898 of stomach cancer . As one of the last actions he had initiated negotiations with Godthaab to combine the two factories and in the summer of 1898 , negotiations were concluded with HE Gosch & Co. taking over "Aktie Tændstikfabriken Godthaab" and the new company was named the somewhat lengthy " Aktieselskabet HE Gosch & co Tændstikfabrik and Aktietændstikfabrikken Godthaab " . The board was set with two people from each of the factories , in addition to Oscar Davidsen, who was still president.

At the same time  Godthaab´s  export company , Kjøbenhavns Actie Tændstikfabrik, which stood for exports through RB Green in Hamburg was closed and instead  the Kjøbenhavns Aktie Tændstikfabrik (with a "k" instead of "c)" , which now took over this export was established.

In the fall of 1899 , they made another automizasing initial investment , this time in a box filling machine, whereby the workforce was reduced by 75 women , yielding much unrest among employees.

On the 1st of  April 1900  Oscar Davidsen went of the Director and as new directors  Folmer Preisler and cand. Eng . Hjalmar Madsen was elected. At the same time the "Kjøbenhavns Aktie Tændstikfabrik" was closed, since it ceased cooperation with RB Green and now even stood for exports.

By combining the two factories , problems arose due to the fact that there were different wages, but even if workers was offered a uniform salary of 12 crowns per hour strike occurred , since for some meant a pay cut . The strike lasted for six months , after which it was agreed .

In the beginning of 1901, there was in charge of Private Bank President Axel Heide an acquisition and a merger of P. Rohmell , Godthaabsvejs Tændstikfabrik , Tændstikfabriken Merkur and the relatively newly Københavns Tændstikfabrik into the company "Københavns Tændstikfabrikker og Aktietændstikfabrikken Merkur". Within less than a year also Københavns Tændstikfabrik was closed and the production was now delt into Nikolajvej in Frederiksberg , Godthaab on Amager and Merkurin Randers. In 1903  Gosch bought the shares in the company that had been created by Axel Heide , which probably also was the original plan.

There was always a price war with the new factories , and when it was believed that these wars was over, a new factory, Hellerup Tændstikfabrik appeared and became the new competitor and the price war continued .

In 1904  ​​Gosch made another investment in automation , this time almost the ultimate because they invested in 3 complete machines that could take the raw sticks into one end and deliver the finished swearing , waxed and dried sticks in the other and transfer them to the filling machines .

On the 1st of September of that year  Gosch and Godthaab announced that they in the future also operated under the name "De forenede danske Tændstikfabrikker " , but not quite as the name sounded while they still had to fight with Hellerup Tændstikfabrik and the new match factory "Tændstikfabrikken Glødefri" .

In October 1906  Gosch & Co. bought a 50,000 square meter wide fulfilled land at Islands Brygge , where they intended to build a new factory and marge the production . The factory was completed in May 1908. At the same time they began to be interested in abroad and established a cooperation / purchase of Otto Miram in Kassel in Germany and Cobbaert & Prove in Ninove in Belgium. To be in charge of the latter there had been established a special company "Københavns Export tændstikfabriK" ( KEK ) .

And in the same period appears also a new competitor in Denmark , "Købmændenes Tændstikfabrik" in Skelskør , a factory run by an association of merchants. In order to cope with this new competition the three "old" companies Gosch , Glødefri and Hellerup established a joint sales office , which also was agreed production quotas and price policy. The effect of this cooperation , and mismanagement in Skelskør was that the "Købmændenes Tændstikfabrik" went bankrupt in 1910 , after which the three factories bought whole factory and shared the machinery, etc. between them. The main body of the machines were sent to the factory in Ninove .

In 1914, Folmer Preisler got the idea to take advantage of acquisition of wood and established a pencil factory , Viking, which was built on the northern part of the site in Islands Brygge . Interest was high and production increased in the following years .

During the World War I not only problems with large imports of Swedish matches appeared, but also a great interest among the Swedes to take over the Danish factories . Jönköping, had some years ago made an  agreement with Frantz Nehammer to be in charge of the sale in Denmark and now got him to establish a trading company Match Company who made ​​large purchases of shares respectively Glødefri and Hellerup and also began this with Gosch . There was a dramatic hidden battle in which the Swedes in secret, with the Swedish match king Ivar Kreuger in the lead, acquired all the shares in Glødefri and Hellerup and a very large proportion of the shares in Gosch , so that they actually already in 1918 had a majority shareholding.

In 1920, the match production in Randers was closed and  all production transferred to Copenhagen , and the buildings in Randers was sold in 1921.

The Swedes took over more and more influence in Gosch so  Gosch had to pay "royalties " for the use of the Swedish patents, know how and capabilities for the procurement of raw materials from Sweden , and amount of matches Gosch were allowed to produce .

In 1932 Ivar Kreuger made ​​(reportedly ) suicide in Paris and the entire Swedish trust was torn to pieces. There was a long struggle about how the remains after him would be distributed , but just when all thought that Gosch had been taken over by the Americans ( it reached even  an American to be elected on the board ) , it was announced that Svenska Tändstick AktieBolag ( STAB ) now with the Wallenberg- family behind, had taken over Gosch .

During World War II  the lack of usable wood was significantly and to guard against future problems  Gosch bought the farm Hellestrup , when they breeded aspe and poplar trees, which would later be planted with forest owners and later bought back as matchstick trees.

In 1955 the Monopoly Control was created and they cast their light on the match industry where they could see that all the Danish factories were owned by the Swedes. This had finally been completely public .

In the early 1960s, Swedes began to rationalize the Danish factories , and in 1961 closed the production at the combined Hellerup & Glødefri Tændstikfabrik and began to produce a series of rationalization projects , "the Ideal factory" , etc. , which in some projects also included Viking.

The rationalizations did not go as hoped , in some situations  the various savings plans worked against each other and profits began to disappear. At the same time the Swedes entirely controlled both purchase and selling prices and Gosch was now only a branch of STAB .

In 1970 STAB tried to buy up the remaining 9 % shares in Gosch and by the offer of a good share price outlet they now owned 97 to 98 % of the shares. Although the factory in the last 5 years almost constantly had reduced the workforce as a part of the rationalization plans , the Swedes decided to close HE Gosch & Co. as a match factory 1st of July 1972. Sales of Tordenskjold matches , however, continued through the company Starmark .

1838 - Benjamin Hellmann
1840 - Rohmell´s fabrikker
1841 - Ramsing & Stonor
1842 - Hans Andreas Reuter
1842 - Anne Marie Granberg
1843 - Hans Diderich Schmilau
1843 - Frederik Georg Kølbel
1843 - Carl Axel Hörner
1843 - Carl Peter Rolff
1843 - Christian Peter Beck
1843 - Christophersen og Nielsen
1843 - Johan Carl Müller
1844 - Svovlstikkefabrikken Møllegade
1844 - Arnold Theofilus Müllertz
1844 - Carl Ferdinand Gundorph

1844 - Hassing og Smith
1844 - Carl Frederik Kryger
1844 - Peter Conradsen
1844 - Philip Åkermann
1845 - Niels Thuesen
1846 - Niels Sørensen
1847 - Rasmus Rasmussen
1847 - Søren og Jørgen Brummer
1848 - Frederik Hansen
1850 - Greens fabrikker
1850 - Carl Johan Staal
1850 - Peder Andersen
1853 - Gümoes & Beeken
1853 - Johan Wilhelm Otto
1857 - Carl Abraham Metz
1858 - Anders Sørensen & Co.
1862 - Sørens Larsen Sørensen

1864 - Randers Tændstikfabrik
1864 - Rasmus Langeland Mathiesen
1864 - Hintz & Co
1864 - Ludvig Hintze
1865 - Aalborg Svovlstikkefabrik
1865 - Peter Nielsen
1865 - Hans Jørgensen Svovlstikkefabrik
1865 - Adolph Madsen
1865 - Andreas Bernhard Bryndum
1866 - Carl Meyling
1866 - Lund & Hartmann
1867 - Johan Wilhelm Krause
1868 - Peter Christian Petersen

1868 - Kjær & Gottlieb
1872 - Pallesen & Davidsen
1875 - Kronen og Nørrebros tændstikfabrik
1876 - H.E. Gosch & Co
1884 - Tændstikfabrikken Merkur
1886 - Maare Tændstikfabrik
1890 - Norden og Godthaabsvej

1897 - Københavns Tændstikfabrik
1899 - Internationalt Tændstikkompagni

1901 - Tændstikfabrikken Glødefri
1901 - Købmændenes Tændstikfabrik
1901 - Københavns Tændstikfabrik & Merkur
1904 - Hellerup Tændstikfabrik

1907 - Otto Miram
1908 - KET & Union Allumettière
1916 - Frantz Nehammer
1921 - Hellerup & Glødefri
Other factories